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Parkeer24, 21 january 2020 & Vastgoedjournaal december 2019

Parking solutions Amsterdam The Style Outlets

Amsterdam The Style Outlets is an outlet in development in Halfweg on the historic SugarCity site. The outlet center has a gross floor area of 19,000 m2 and around 115 stores. Opening is planned for the fall of 2020. The location between Amsterdam and Haarlem and close to Schiphol is unique in comparison with the competition, partly because there is a train station just in front of the outlet and there are a lot of parking spaces. However, the location also offers many challenges. In this chapter we will discuss the method by which we create solutions for these challenges. For an impression of the construction site, see the image below.

Traffic and parking questions

An outlet center is characterized by peak visits. During weekends and public holidays it is much busier than during the week. How do you deal with the corresponding traffic and parking needs? What will the traffic flows be on the surrounding road network? How many visitors come by car or by other transport (ie what is the “modal split”)? How do you prevent traffic jams on the road network? How many parking spaces are needed? What do those parking places cost and what do they deliver? Can you build parking spaces base on the peak? Where should the cars be parked when all parking spaces are occupied? These are some of the questions that we will briefly address in this case.

Realistic visitor numbers and traffic model

Answering these questions starts with a realistic visitor forecast. Fortunately, a lot of information about visitor numbers at outlet centers is known. With the help of a traffic engineering model and based on experience data, a traffic advisor calculated how many cars will arrive per day. The traffic advisor also calculated the distribution of arriving cars over the day. They looked at both the peak days and the days with relatively few visitors. With a traffic simulation the traffic advisor calculates what this means for the underlying road network. After coordination with the Directorate-General for Public Works and Water Management and the local municipality, it was decided that, among other things, dosage rate limitation for cars leaving the car park during peak hours is necessary to prevent traffic jams on the road past the outlet center.

From traffic model to parking balance and operation

The number of cars per day and the distribution of these cars over the day has been translated by Parkeeradvies.com into the number of cars that can park at the different parking locations per moment of the day. The parking balance and income per parking location are calculated with this. Parking at surrounding parking locations is unfortunately inevitable during peak days. For peak times in particular, the number of incoming and outgoing cars and the number of cars present per day of the day were mapped. See the following graph as an example.

The average parking duration and the turnover per parking space per day follow from the graph above. An operating forecast has been made per parking location for the coming 10 years. Finally, a risk and sensitivity analysis shows the consequences of deviations from the model. “What-if scenarios” offer solutions if reality differs from the model.

Lessons learned

Everything starts with reliable reference data and realistic assumptions. Next, traffic and parking models, experienced advisers, a risk and sensitivity analysis and “what-if scenarios” are necessary for preparation. Ultimately, it’s all about collaboration between all involved and implementation in the implementation phase.


Too large or too tight parking norm: how do we solve that?
09-12-2019 Real Estate News

Many developers and investors struggle with parking standards because too large or too tight a parking standard can threaten developments. What are possible solutions? An article by parking specialist Mathijs Smissaert.

Since 1 July 2018, all zoning plans must in principle provide parking standards instead of those previously provided for in the Building Regulation. If that is not done or not done properly, then it can not only lead to the destruction of the plan rule, but then a building application cannot be refused even if there is a problem with parking. For example, a clear parking standard must be included or must be referred to (dynamic reference).

The zoning plan usually refers to the parking bill. Often the bill already offers tools for alternatives. For example, the "Policy Regulation parking standards car and bicycle of the municipality of Rotterdam 2018" offers the following special exemptions:

Extra bicycle parking space: if a development in a paid parking area provides for extra bicycle parking facilities on own terrain, the car parking requirement is reduced by a maximum of 10% in
the ratio of two bicycle parking places instead of one car parking space. These extra bicycle parking spaces must be realized on their own terrain and are intended for long-term parkers (residents, workers, students).

 Shared cars: if, in the case of a residential development in a paid parking area, commercially offered shared cars are made available on earmarked shared car parking places for a minimum of 10 years, the car parking requirement is reduced by a maximum of 20% in the ratio of one car parking place with shared car instead of five regular car parking spaces. The shared cars may also be placed in a nearby parking facility on earmarked shared car parking places.

 Mobility as a Service (MaaS): if, in the event of a development in a paid parking area, Mobility as a Service is made available to all future users on a structural basis, ie for a minimum of 10
years, the car parking requirement will be reduced by a maximum of 20%.

The special exemptions may be added together.

The proximity of a public transport station in Rotterdam is also a reason for a lower parking standard.

If you need more parking spaces, renting parking spaces in the immediate vicinity is oftenan option. This is about acceptable walkingdistances. The municipality usually requires a long-term contract that demonstrates that the development solves its own parking needs.

Other exceptions are often:

  • Demonstrate by means of a parking survey that the parking requirement deviates from the norm in practice. The design of this parking survey must meet the requirements of the municipality. Coordination is necessary. Sometimes a deposit in a municipal parking fund is possible to finance a shortage of parking places.
  • After all, with a job change or renovation project, offsetting is often an option. A solution must be found for any increase in parking requirements. For example parking requirement: 16 parking spaces in the old situation, 26 in the new situation, on balance 10 additional parking spaces required.

Offsetting is also permitted if the municipal parking policy does not state that this is possible. When offsetting, the new and the existing deficit may first be rounded off and then the results can be subtracted. An existing deficit does not usually have to be compensated first. More or less is possible depending on the municipality and the project.

About the author: Drs Mathijs K. Smissaert Bc

Mathijs Smissaert has worked for several leading parking operators in commercial management and executive positions and is now the owner of Parkeeradvies.com. As a network organization, Parkeeradvies.com helps with the entire process from development to sales.


5 Tips for a profitable parking garage development

Real Estate News 6 March 2019







“No parking no business ”is a winged statement. But how do you develop a profitable parking? Municipalities often come up with requirements that do not make it easier. Rigid parking

standards and preferably underground parking. More and more often, the entire development cannot continue. Or is the end result a loss-making parking. Creative win-win solutions and
an open dialogue with the municipality are often necessary. This article gives practical tips to get out of the impasse.

Tip 1. Above ground instead of underground

That saves half the investment and gives less risk of a "blunder or disaster pit". What also saves is a modular or system construction. An above-ground parking lot is often regarded as ugly and not useful use of space. However, there are more and more solutions for this. Such as enveloping the parking with the other functions or with ivy or a durable wooden and fire-resistant facade. People often prefer to solve parking underground. If possible, stay above groundwater levels. That saves an expensive extra layer and extra risk. Still below
groundwater level ……… .. then it is even more important to have a realistic valuation made in advance (see Tip 5). So that a possible loss is clear in time and alternatives can still be
searched for. Another solution is collaboration. A communal parking together with other developers for the entire area. Or rent long-term empty parking spaces at the neighbors. Only for the peak or continuous. Or conclude a deal with the municipality and buy off part of the parking requirement and have it parked on public roads. Or, in consultation with the municipality, realize fewer parking spaces by offering car-sharing and rental facilities. More is often possible than initially thought.

Tip 2 Location, location, location ………… ..

Yes, this sounds familiar. Logical. But the location is already fixed and other solutions are not possible. Then the approach route, findability, ease of use and the price and promotion of the parking can make the difference. They must be better than the alternative parking options in the immediate vicinity. And from the parking you are directly at your destination (s). In short, you come in a faster and in a more customer-friendly way to the most important visit locations than the alternative parking options. It is often possible to influence this. What also helps is to add functions that generate additional parking hours during off-peak hours. Additional functions such as shops and offices and going out for example. Or conclude deals with visiting purposes in the area.

Tip 3 Optimize accompanying parking policy

A nice municipal term but oh so important. Free parking in the immediate vicinity or many well- located street parking spaces in front of the door costs turnover. Certainly with many non-business visits. No missed sales during peak hours when things are right, but during the crucial off-peak hours. Parking operation often revolves around off-peak management. There
are usually many more off-peak hours than peak hours. It is therefore important to clearly clarify the accompanying municipal parking policy and to make agreements. So that alternative parking is unattractive.

Tip 4 Parking balance theory versus practice

A parking balance is often drawn up based on municipal parking standards and the functions to be realized. The number of "required" parking spaces then rolls out. But can this number of parking spaces also be made profitable? That is a very different story. The standard is based on the normative or busiest parking moment in the week. The maximum number of parking spaces required during peak times. At store locations, this is often on Saturday afternoon and at offices often on Tuesday or Thursday. But the rest of the week these places are largely empty and cost a lot of money. So the question is whether building for the peak pays off. Or that the peak requirement can if possible be purchased elsewhere. Or that during the many off-peak hours other target audiences and crowd pullers in the area can fill the empty places.

Tip 5 Start with a realistic valuation

As soon as there is more clarity about the previous 4 tips, a valuation provides insight into the expected result. Adjusting the planning for an undesirable result is now still possible. A
common mistake is that based on unrealistic assumptions or incorrect calculations wrong conclusions are drawn. Extrapolating the standards to an occupancy rate or sold parking
hours often goes wrong. Certainly at good public transport locations. The  tenants and visitors choose public transport instead of the car. But at other locations too, there is often a difference between the theory of parking standards and the practice of occupancy. How should it be? Good research into local conditions and practical experience with the operation of many car parks in addition to theoretical knowledge offer a solution. Parking is custom work and is a job just like development.


Your Parking EV ready? 3 tips

Impact of the increase in electric cars on your Parking. The share of electric cars on the Dutch road is increasing. E-drivers are often an important target group in parking garages. But
how fast is it developing? And how much charging points do you need in your parking garage? Is it possible to achieve a return by offering charging points? In fact, is the parking
garage the battery of the future? Below 3 tips for car parks.

1: install futureproof
By taking into account the growth curve of electric cars, you prevent tampering. When working on electrical installations, you must ensure that they are futureproof. That means:
ready for the required number of charging points until around 2025. Also prepare the cabling and cable trays for this. Reconnect capacity later to connect more charging points, will drive up costs and is time-consuming.

But what about that growth curve?

In the growth curve a turning point is expected before or around 2025, namely when electric cars are cheaper than fossils. In the shorter term, the increase in the number of electric cars
is predictable on the basis of EV forecasts that take into account local factors such as the profile of visitors and local residents. With these EV prognoses, the optimum number of charging points can be determined now and in the future. This image; the file name is Graph-growth- charge-points-4.png








2: earn from your posts With charging points you deliver added value. Depending on the strategy of your Parking, there are different ways to generate income from it. In this way you can earn from the difference between the relatively low purchasing costs of electricity and the charging rate in line with the market. With a high occupancy rate, the investment is quickly recovered. Are you also considering solar panels? Then the business case works out better if you combine this with the installation of charging points. You are also eligible for a subsidy for both charging stations and solar panels.

3: buy in sharply
The market for charging infrastructure is dynamic. The functionalities of the charging infrastructure that suppliers offer are constantly evolving. This includes the costs for installation and maintenance of charging infrastructure. You make a sharp purchase by approaching suppliers based on a clear Program of Requirements. And you only choose those requirements that are important for the Parking.

Knowing more? Contact EVConsult or Mathijs Smissaert of Parkeeradvies.com.

EVConsult in collaboration with Parkeeradvies.com are happy to help you on your way.

  • With our EV prognoses and translation into actual loading requirements, you ensure that your parking is EV-ready and meets the standards.
  • With our expertise you ensure that your Parking is provided with a profitable loading solution that fits your strategy.
  • With our guidance with tenders you ensure that you select the right partners and you save unnecessary costs.


Walmart turns parking areas into city centers

Walmart plans to change parking areas to "Town centers". During a supermarket event in Atlanta at the end of November 2018 announced LB Johnson, vice president of U.S. Realty Operations from Walmart outdoor meeting places with seats, restaurants, food trucks, markets for local seasonal products, playgrounds, green areas, fitness, festivals, but also useful items such as pick-up points, lockers, a mobility hub, etc. It is a flexible concept based on customization per location. In consultation with the neighborhood. Parking from resistance factor to opportunity.

In the Netherlands, MRP does something similar at Megastores The Hague. On the upper parking deck there was a rooftop bar throughout September and even an open air cinema for one evening.

Everything revolves around experience and attracting and retaining customers. And to maximize the use of under-utilized assets. Not only in case of structurally too many parking
spaces, but also at non-peak moments. After all, most parking places only have a peak on Saturday afternoon and on the shopping evening and are partially vacant for the rest of
the week. Why not organize a food truck festival and pop-up restaurants and a market with seasonal products on Saturday nights?


More and more options to sell or rent parking garages

There are more and more opportunities to sell or rent parking garages at a high price. This article discusses the investment motives and return requirements of the various investors. In addition to the regular option to sell or rent to a (parking) investment fund, investor or municipality, lesser- known options are emerging. Options that entail more (parking policy) freedom, flexibility and involvement of the parkers. Options that have been used in other segments of the real estate market for years with more or less success. Proven alternatives. This article provides an
overview of the various sales or rental options.

After all, selling or renting out a parking locationis custom work and preparation is half the battle.


Prepare for sale or rental

Just like when selling a house or a company, making a property ready for sale or rental is crucial for achieving a high price. A lot can be gained here, especially with a parking garage
under development, but also with existing parking locations. Thorough preparation is half the battle.

This includes the following measures for an existing garage:

  • Apply revenue management. Analyze the current use of the parking garage and adjust the rates accordingly. This makes at least a 5 to 10% higher turnover achievable.
  • Close deals with public attractions in the area.
  • Good signage to and advertising for the parking garage.
  • Good findability and promotions on the internet (Google).
  • Close permit holder deals with the municipality.
  • The pounding out of any overcapacity.
  • Lowering the (staff) costs by (partly) managing the parking garage via an emergency room.
  • Etc.

The following topics are also important for a garage under development:

  • A fast and uninterrupted approach route from the main approach route (construction traffic elsewhere).
  • A customer-friendly parking garage that meets the Dutch NEN 2443 standards.
  • Alternative applicability / redevelopment options.
  • One communal parking garage in an area.
  • An above-ground instead of an underground parking garage.
  • Clarity about the accompanying parking (rates) policy in the area.
  • Etc.


Sales and rental options

In the remainder of this article, we discuss the sales and rental options listed in Table 1 below. As well as the characteristics of the different investors (see table 2).

Table 1 Sales and rental options

Sales option Feature deal Size Advantages Disadvantages
1.(Parking) Investment Fund > € 5 million. Efficient for a large deal, expert No parking
policy freedom
2. Municipality n.v.t. The municipality calculates differently Decision making process
2a. Sale and lease Back BNG / Municipality > € 5 mln. Parking policy freedom
(manage yourself
and buy-back option). Alternative to sale.
Loan 60 to 70% Net Present Value (NPV), risk premium and conditions (max 10-25 years)
2b. DBFMO > € 5 mln. Risk sharing, best
value procurement
Pre-investment project management
3.Institutional investor > 5 mln. Parking as
part of (Shopping centre, office)
For parking sometimes lower price
4. Parking operator > € 1 mln. Expert owner Prefers to operate themselves
5. Private investors < € 5 mln. Efficient for
smaller deals
No parking policy freedom
6. Crowdfunding < € 2.5 mln. Customer loyalty, small investment Costs
7. Timesharing > € 1 mln. Partial ownership Poor image
8. Blockchain Still pilot Small investment
possible, low costs, easier to trade
Still in pilot phase


The investors listed in Table 1 vary considerably.

Table 2 details their characteristics.

Table 2 Investment motive, return requirement, location / profile and investment period

Selling option \ Characteristic Investment motive Gross initial return Location / profile Term in
1.(Parking) – investment fund Stable return 5-7% start + rent increase + exit at sale Center big city, public 7-10 +
2. Municipality Parking regulation Social return.
Long term minimal break even.
Entire city,
residents & public
Usually long term
2a. Sale and lease Back BNG bank /
Social return Euro swap yield 10 or
15 years + risk surcharge
Entire city, business plan 10-25 years
2b. DBFMO Efficiency & building volume 5 – 15% + Entire city 10-30 years
3.Institutional investor Total project, high return Total project In accordance with project or less Diverse 10-30
 4. Parking

operator (private)

High efficiency 5-7%+ Large city, airport 10-30
5. Private investors High return 7 – 10% + City
public 5 -10
6. Crowdfunding loan Return & involvement

(home, office)

5% – 9% Entire city, residents & public 1 -10
7. Timesharing Return & involvement
7%- 10%+ Entire city, residents &
5 -10
8. Blockchain Efficiency & involvement 5 – 9%, still pilot Entire city, residents & public 1-10


  1. Sale to a (parking) investment fund or real estate investor

This is the regular option. The Netherlands is home to no fewer than three parking investment funds.

Parking operators sometimes buy themselves (see option 4) and sometimes together with a parking investment fund or other investors. The parking operator guarantees a long-term fixed and or partly variable rent on the basis of which the parking investment fund buys. Parking investment funds usually buy from € 5 million because of the transaction costs. It is a fast and efficient option for large deals. It is advisable to start preparing a sales plan. An extensive and thorough sales document and the organization of a tender are at least part of this. An expert who knows the market can prevent mistakes, realize a higher price and take a lot of work off your hands. In particular, answering questions is sometimes underestimated.

Sales to a real estate investor often takes place if the parking location is part of a shopping center, offices or homes owned by the investor concerned. Certainly if the parking fee is still free or very low.

       2. Sale to and by a municipality

Depending on the municipal policy, a municipality also buys or rents parking locations in addition to managing on street parking. Many municipalities have their own parking organization that takes care of the management of barrier locations. Municipalities can finance the start-up losses of parking garages from profitable street parking. What is striking here is that municipalities charge parking differently than the market does. The market often calculates on the basis of a required gross initial yield and depreciates to a limited extent on the investment in parking garages. A residual value of often 70 to 80% is assumed. Municipalities generally estimate income more optimistically and more often write off to € 0.- over a 40-year period. They reserve the purchase amount in one go on their budget in the year of purchase. The interest rates at which they borrow and the risk premiums with which they calculate are lower than the gross initial return of investors. Many municipalities borrow through the Dutch BNG Bank N.V. (BNG). If a project developer or private investor lets a project to a municipality, it may also use sharper interest rates and conditions under certain conditions.

      2b. Design Build Finance Maintain & Operate (DBFMO)

At DBFMO, a municipality invests in a parking garage that still needs to be developed, whereby the design, construction and financing, as well as maintenance and operation during a certain period are included in the contract. It often concerns complex projects with a long duration of up to thirty years, which are contracted out to private parties on the basis of a concession. These parties invest in the project and earn back their investment spread over the duration of the concession via the parking income. The advantage of this approach for the municipality is the risk sharing with and the maximum utilization of the expertise of market parties. A recent example is the realization of the Boerenwetering parking garage in the Pijp in Amsterdam. Until now municipalities often still traditionally use parking garages. The exploitation risk then lies with the municipality or parking operators. 

  1. Institutional investor 

Institutional investors usually purchase parking garages as part of an investment. A shopping mall or office with parking. “No parking no business” is the motto. Parking as lifeline and necessary facility. An investment without parking is less current. More difficult to sell and worth less. The interests of tenants and visitors to the mall or office have priority. There must always be room for them. But also with a quality, service and pricing that match with the level of the crowdpuller itself. To ensure that private parking is crucial. 

  1. Sale or lease to a private parking operator 

The Netherlands has many private parking operators. Most manage and rent or operate with risk. They have an asset light strategy and no ownership. The ownership is with the (parking) investment funds, municipalities or sometimes with private investors. Some parking operators invest, operate and manage themselves. They use a hybrid strategy. An example is Interparking. Q Park sometimes buys itself and sometimes together with a parking investor. When a parking operator buys, the goal is to create maximum value by managing themselves.

  1. Sale or lease to private investors

Private investors fill the gap in the market that investment funds, institutional investors and parking operators do not fill. The deals are usually smaller than € 5 million. The private investors are usually old entrepreneurs and wealthy individuals. The advantage over crowdfunding is that it is clear faster and with less publicity whether a deal succeeds. In addition, if the private sale fails, the parking can be sold later on through crowdfunding on good terms. Conversely, this is more difficult due to the information already published on the internet.

  1. Sell ​​through crowdfunding

Crowdfunding for start ups is on the rise. Less known is that crowdfunding also takes place for real estate. Students whose parents buy a house together are an example of this. Real estate is also funded through crowdfunding sites. The advantage is that the investor is often also a resident and is able to participate with small loans. Due to the direct involvement there is a form of customer loyalty. Crowdfunding as a marketing tool. Crowdfunding also makes it possible that sometimes unprofitable parking locations at apartments can be sold at higher prices. At the construction price with a profit mark-up. This applies in particular in the event of scarcity of parking places and wealthy owners or tenants. For example, parking spaces on the Amsterdam canals which are sold for more than € 100,000 per parking space. Examples of Dutch real estate sites include: Crowdestate.nl, Bouwaandeel.nl, Crowdbricks and for companies including Collin Crowdfund, Symbid and KNAB Crowdfunding. The deals so far are usually less than € 2.5 million. For sales through crowdfunding, preparing for sale, a sales plan, a sales document and the involvement of a parking expert are also important.

  1. Sales through timeshare

Time sharing of holiday homes is a well-known phenomenon. The same principle can be applied for parking locations with a barrier. In fact, an office or night and / or weekend parking subscription is already a form of timeshare. So why not sell the parking garage on the same basis? So part-time ownership based on the desired use. In accordance with the number of parking hours or day parts of the week. For personal use and / or as an investment. This option is particularly suitable for parking locations with homes or at offices. The advantage for the owners or tenants of the homes or offices is that parking is not only a cost but also an investment which can generate returns. Efficiency through double use of parking spaces via income from short-term parking. For example via apps such as Parkmobile and Parkbee. Or income from double use of empty parking spaces during off-peak hours with extra subscriptions based on flex spaces. Just like a professional parking operator rents out more places than there are on paper. As with crowdfunding the advantage is that the investor also uses the parking himself and can participate with small amounts. For the seller of the parking spaces, the advantage is that a higher selling price is feasible. Through timesharing, through dual use and through direct sales to residents. The disadvantage is that timesharing due to the aggressive sales methods at holiday homes does not have an undisputed image. As a result, strict EU and Dutch ACM rules apply to the information that must be provided to buyers. In addition, the consumer has a legal right of withdrawal from 14 days up to 1 year if no standard withdrawal form is attached.

  1. Sell ​​parking garage via the blockchain

A form of crowdfunding is the sale of real estate via the blockchain. This is still in the pilot phase and has had a short delay in connection with the tax consequences of the intended cancellation of the Dutch dividend tax that was ultimately cancelled. Bloqhouse and Annexum, but also Briqchain start-up are recent initiatives. Bloqhouse and Annexum Participants are given the opportunity to buy so-called tokens for a small amount which represent a share in specific real estate. You can board from a low amount. You can step out when you want, making you much more flexible than in current investments. These are the two major points that will make this interesting for participants. And investing in real estate is of course a good investment. The real estate funds that you can currently access on the stock exchange are not about one property but sometimes about thousands of properties, everything is thrown together. Here you can see much more specifically what you are investing in. The idea that you can walk there and touch it is fun ”, says Tim Rutgers, cofounder of Bloqhouse in Vastgoedjournaal and the Financiële Dagblad.


According to Vastgoedjournaal of 24 September 2018, Briqchain will soon start with the first Briq fund. This is unique, because the start-up introduces the very first fund worldwide that fully captures real estate bonds and executes them on the blockchain.

Why this initiative? And especially: what makes investing in Briqs, as the bonds are called, so attractive?

Attractive starter homes

“When blockchain technology came our way, everything actually fell into place,” emphasizes Ellens. “After all, the technology ensures simple and transparent administrative processes, without the intervention of trusted third parties, such as a bank or notary. This means that you can save substantially on costs and actions. That is why you can invest with us from as little as € 10 in Briqs, real estate bonds which are fixed on the blockchain and are therefore freely tradable. ”With the issuance of bonds, financing is raised for the purchase of attractive starter homes in large Dutch cities. The homes are then made available for rent to young professionals, starters and young families.

About the author:

Drs Mathijs K. Smissaert Bc

Mathijs Smissaert has worked for several leading parking operators in commercial management and executive positions and is now the owner of Parkeeradvies.com. As a network organization, Parkeeradvies.com helps with the entire process from development to sales.


Make a revenue calculation for a new parking garage.



The turnover of a parking garage mainly depends on the location. How large is the parking demand? Does the parking pressure come from the crowd pullers in the immediate vicinity? And how busy are competitive parking facilities? The occupancy rate also depends on factors such as accessibility, findability, familiarity and fame, price and promotion. A new parking location has yet to be found and a start-up time is required for this. Advisors often calculate the occupancy rate with benchmarks or reference data corrected for location-specific factors and on-site research (eg parking counts). A check can be made by calculating the parking demand generated by the crowd pullers in the immediate vicinity. We are happy to make a calculation for your parking garage. Or give a second opinion on your own calculation.


Increase the turnover of your parking garage.

You can increase the turnover of your parking garage by optimizing the 4 P’s:

  • Location: Better accessibility and findability. Think of Google, route planners, signs, connection to parking referral system, etc.
  • Product: Entry / exit situation, attractiveness and ease of use, extra services, online booking, etc.
  • Price: With revenue management after analysis of the use of the parking garage and the pricing of the competing alternatives. 
  • Promotion: Think of advertising, use of Google Adwords, entering an off-peak rate, deals with crowd pullers, etc. An example marketing plan is available by clicking on this link: http://docplayer.nl/17783763-Parkeren- in-assen- altijd-dichtbij-marketingplan-2014- 2017.html.


Always use design standards when designing a parking garage

The starting point is the Dutch NEN 2443 standard. The standard specifies the minimum requirements for each type of parking facility. The standard is an assessment framework and explicitly not a program of requirements. The standard can be obtained against payment via this link: https://www.nen.nl/NEN-Shop/Norm/NEN- 24432013-nl.htm.


Take into account the differences between the parking standards and the CROW parking figures when calculating the parking requirement.

A parking standard is a number of parking places set by a municipality that a new construction plan must meet in order to obtain a building permit. A  strict parking norm offers the municipality the opportunity to stimulate public transport and the bicycle. To help municipalities and road authorities in determining parking requirements, CROW has compiled parking figures. The parking figures are an average and an aid to determine the number of parking places for a new parking facility. The parking figures are not customized and give an indication of the parking requirement. When using it, the following characteristics of the building must therefore be taken into account:

  • Accessibility characteristics (public transport location ?!)
  • Specific properties (retail, office, homes, etc.)
  • Mobility characteristics of users / visitors (government building versus business services)
  • The municipal parking or mobility policy.

The parking key figures form the basis and are included in the Dutch CROW publication 317 “Key figures parking and traffic generation” They can be obtained via the following link: https://www.crow.nl/publicaties/ken figures- parking-and-traffic generation.

To calculate the parking requirement quickly and easily, there is the “Traffic Generation and Parking Calculation Tool” (paid):



Want to know more about parking tips?  Parkeeradvies.com is happy to give you advice.  Feel free to mail for more information to m.smissaert@parkeeradvies.com or click on the 

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